Literature Review on the Utilisation of Urine as a Fertiliser in Agriculture
Urine contains four important nutrients for plant growth: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulphur (S) and its use as fertiliser can not only recover these nutrients, but also reduce the use of chemical fertilisers and freshwater, as well as minimise the wastewater and excreta contamination of surface and open waters. However, if not managed properly, the risk of pathogen transmission, soil salinisation and pharmaceutical contamination, as well as strong and offensive odour, can cause significant health problems and discomfort. Other challenges that have to be addressed in the process of urine utilisation in agriculture are separation techniques, storage time, urine amount to be applied, odour prevention and transport. The possibilities and difficulties of this technique are addressed in this paper. The utilisation of urine in agriculture can help to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6: ..ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.. of the 2030 Agenda.