Sorption properties of materials based on residual biomass
International Scientific Conference on Energy, Environmental and Construction Engineering (EECE-2018)
Contribution to Conference
In this paper, we consider the possibility of using inexpensive and effective sorption materials based on plant raw materials, such as fruit rind, vegetable waste, fallen leaves, and the use of phytosorbents for the purification of sewage containing heavy metals and petroleum products. The use of vegetable waste for the manufacture of sorbents is a priority for solving environmental problems. It is suggested to use residual biomass as a sorption material, which is formed after extraction of lipids from C. sorokiniana microalgae and duckweed Lemna minor. To increase the sorption capacity, it was proposed to thermally modify the residual biomass. The optimum heat treatment conditions were 450 °C for 20 minutes with limited access to oxygen. The obtained biomass allows one to extract ions of heavy metals with efficiency of 91-93% for ions of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper. To increase the sorption capacity (A, mg/g) of the residual biomass, heat treated waste from the agro-industrial complex and chitosan were proposed as additives. The addition of chitosan makes it possible to obtain a sorption material in the form of granules, which is convenient to use. For the sorption materials obtained, microstructural studies were carried out, which allowed us to substantiate the sorption properties of the materials. The physical and mechanical properties of sorbents, such as abrasion, grindability, allow us to offer new materials for use on an industrial scale. In the article, a technological scheme for obtaining sorption materials from residual biomass is given.