Dynamic modelling of reactive fluidized bed systems using the example of the chemical looping combustion process for solid fuels
The novel open-source flowsheet simulation software DYSSOL was used to simulate effects inside a system of interconnected fluidized bed reactors. The development of the needed models was done exemplary for the Chemical Looping Combustion process for solid and gaseous fuels. In CLC a solid oxygen carrier material is circulated between interconnected fluidized bed reactors. In the simulation, the focus is laid on the prediction of the dynamics of the whole system, especially the process start-up, shut-down and fuel load change. A dynamic model, which can be applied for bubbling beds and circulating fluidized beds was derived. Additionally, a cyclone was introduced for gas-solid separation. Loop seals ensure gas sealing between the reactors and were included into the modeling. Fluid mechanics inside the systems are modeled with empirical and semi-empirical, one-dimensional correlations, to enable fast calculations. These considerations allow real-time simulations of long-term effects in the system. The chemical reactions for gaseous and solid fuel combustions are included in the simulation. This has an effect on the solid oxygen carrier and so the oxidation and reduction of the carrier are regarded. The simulations were validated with experiments on a 25 kWth Chemical Looping Combustion facility at TUHH. The flowsheet models are able to predict the movement of the bed material between the units after operation changes as well as the time frames in which these changes occur. Besides, the gas and solids conversions in the fluidized bed reactors were simulated accurately.