Conceptualization of bioreactor landfill approach for sustainable waste management in Karachi, Pakistan
Finding a sustainable approach for municipal solid waste (MSW) management is becoming paramount. However, as with many urban areas in developing countries, the approach applied to MSW management in Karachi is neither environmentally sustainable nor suitable for public health. Due to adoption of an inefficient waste management system, society is paying intangible costs such as damage to public health and environment quality. In order to minimize the environmental impacts and health issues associated with waste management practices, a sustainable waste management and disposal strategy is required. The aim of this paper is to present a concept for the development of new bioreactor landfills for sustainable waste management in Karachi. Furthermore, this paper contributes to estimation of methane (CH4) emissions from waste disposal sites by employing the First Order Decay (FOD) Tier 2 model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and determining of the biodegradation rate constant (k) value. The design and operational concept of bioreactor landfills is formulated for the study area, including estimation of land requirement, methane production, power generation, and liquid required for recirculation, along with a preliminary sketch of the proposed bioreactor landfill. This study will be helpful for stockholders, policy makers, and researchers in planning, development, and further research for establishment of bioreactor landfill facilities, particularly in the study area as well as more generally in regions with a similar climate and MSW composition.
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Publishing fees funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - project number 491268466 and the Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) in the funding program *Open Access Publishing*.