Adhesion of surfaces with wavy roughness and a shallow depression
Recently, a simple and elegant “dimple” model was introduced by McMeeking et al. (2010) to show a mechanism for a bistable adhesive system involving a surface with a shallow depression. The system shows, at least for intermediate levels of stickiness, that external pressure can switch the system into a “strong adhesive” regime of full contact, or into weak adhesion and complete pull-off, similarly to the contact of surfaces with a single scale of periodical waviness. We add to this model the effect of roughness, in the simple form of axisymmetric single scale of waviness, and we show that this induces a resistance to jumping into full contact on one hand (limiting the “strong adhesion” regime), and an enhancement of pull-off and of hysteresis starting from the partial contact state on the other (enhancing the “weak adhesion” regime). We show the system depends only on two dimensionless parameters, and becomes pressure-sensitive. The model obviously is specular to the Guduru model of rough spheres (Guduru, 2007), with which it shares the limitations of the analysis assuming a connected contact (crack) area, and serves also the purpose of showing the effect of a depression into an otherwise periodic rough contact, towards the understanding of adhesion with multiple scales of roughness.