RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3
RUVIVAL Publication Series is a compilation of literature reviews on topics concerned with the revitalisation of rural areas. RUVIVAL Publication Series is part of the e-learning project RUVIVAL and each of the three contributions in this publication is connected to further interactive multimedia material, which can be reached under http://www.hoou.de. The first literature review is concerned with urine utilisation as a fertiliser in agriculture. Urine contains four important nutrients for plant growth: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulphur (S) and its use as fertiliser can not only recover these nutrients, but also reduce the use of chemical fertilisers and freshwater, as well as minimise the wastewater and excreta contamination of surface and open waters. However, if not managed properly, the risk of pathogen transmission, soil salinisation and pharmaceutical contamination, as well as strong and offensive odour, can cause significant health problems and discomfort. The second literature review introduces a biowaste/sanitation system from a highly advanced ancient culture, Terra Preta Sanitation. TPS shows great potential for soil building and nutrient recycling from excreta. Lactic acid fermentation (LAF) and vermicomposting as sanitisation options are examined in more detail. This literature review gives an overview of the current state of research conducted at the Institute for Wastewater Management and Water Protection (AWW) at the Hamburg University of Technology. The third literature review paper discusses the responses, methods, policies and proposed and practiced alternatives, as well as the corresponding difficulties and limitations, to increase water efficiency in agricultural irrigation. Irrigation management has varying effects on different stakeholders according to ample components affecting the irrigation management scheme, such as: soil type, climate, water availability, crop type and socio-economical influences in an area. One technique may be beneficial for short-term purposes, but cause negative consequences in the long run – this must be taken into consideration before implementation.
terra preta sanitation
sustainable rural development
Terra Preta Sanitäranlagen
nachhaltige ländliche Entwicklung