Techno-economic assessment and ghg balance of the indonesian palm oil supply path for europe-a case study of production and transport in central kalimantan
Palm oil is the most demanded vegetable oil in the world. It serves as a raw material for a wide range of products as well as food and energy sources. However, the palm oil supply from Southeast Asian countries has been repeatedly under discussion in the EU Commission for its environmental impacts. To gain a deeper understanding of the related costs and GHG emissions of the palm oil supply, a comprehensive modelling tool is used to assess the Indonesian supply path to Germany. Starting with the cultivation and harvesting of fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the crude palm oil (CPO) production in an oil mill and the cargo handling in Central Kalimantan, the CPO is transshipped through the seaports of Surabaya and Rotterdam to an assumed landing area in the south of Germany. The overall supply costs and GHG emissions add up to 599.08 €/t and 5,156.86 kg CO2-eq./t CPO.
Greenhouse gases (GHG)