Dynamics of Salt Precipitation on Graphene Oxide Membranes
We investigated the drying dynamics and resulting salt deposition patterns from evaporating saline droplets on fabricated graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membranes. As evaporation proceeds, the salt concentration increases until it exceeds substantially the solubility limit which results in the formation of salt crystals. Scanning electron microscopy imaging enabled us to investigate how the properties of the fabricated membranes influence the salt deposition patterns and crystal morphology, providing us with an opportunity to control salt deposition patterns on the surface. The observation from the drying of saline droplets on fabricated GO and rGO membranes leads us to conclude that combined effects of the membrane roughness, interlayer spacing, and nanochannel connectivity determines the drying dynamics and the final salt deposition patterns. Our results extend the understanding of the interaction between surface properties and salt deposition patterns, which is relevant information for various engineering processes such as coating of marine vessels and in water remediation technologies.