An analytical review on Spark Plasma Sintering of metals and alloys: from processing window, phase transformation, and property perspective
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 48 (2): 169-214 (2023)
Taylor & Francis
ABSTRACTs: The need for fully dense material with well-engineered microstructures has led to the promising emergence of innovative sintering technologies among which the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is one of the most favorite. Unlike the conventional sintering processes, SPS takes advantage of a current flow passing through the sintering die and metallic powders by which fast densification with minimal grain growth and enhanced physicomechanical properties can be obtained. Albeit there is a growing interest in the exploitation of SPS in producing sufficiently consolidated metallic parts, no analytical review has been released over the effects of SPS parameters on the densification behavior, microstructure evolution, and resultant physicomechanical properties of metallic parts and their alloys. In the present review, recent developments and ongoing challenges in modeling the SPS of metallic systems are thoroughly explored. Then, the effects of main SPS parameters including sintering temperature, dwell time, heating rate, and pressure on the microstructure and physicomechanical properties of metals and alloys are comprehensively investigated. These properties are categorized into two groups: (i) physical properties including relative density, electrical and thermal conductivities; (ii) mechanical properties with a systematic focus on hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile, compressive, and bending strengths. In each section, the general trends along which SPS parameters grow to affect each corresponding property are comprehensively discussed. Additionally, various microstructural phenomena being more likely to occur at the given metallic systems are fully addressed. The present work seeks to elaborate on the aforementioned issues and provide an overview of the unresolved challenges and proposed solutions to them.
Spark Plasma Sintering