Wastewater: reuse-oriented wastewater systems-low- and high-tech approaches for urban areas
Biowaste management deals with solid waste management, focusing on reusing rather than disposing. There are three main lines of approaching the problem-high-tech systems based mainly on vacuum technology, membrane bioreactors, and biogas plants; urine diverting flush systems; and, finally, the very promising modern dry sanitation systems that can be very cost efficient and furthermore produce black soil and water that can be reused [terra preta sanitation (TPS)]. This chapter provides an overview to some of the different solutions. Integration of the anaerobic dry toilet and vermicomposting thus promises to be an ideal approach for managing wastes; even wastes generated by urban households. The product, terra preta, can address the problems of soil degradation and food insecurity, common in many areas across the world. TPS could become important in the design of highly efficient ecofriendly houses and housing areas with the added value of improved urban agriculture, which can be combined with local greywater reuse. Thus, TPS can close regional cycles and improve hygienic conditions and soil fertility in a sustainable manner with the creation of local added value. There are still questions to be answered such as the issue of macronutrients and also micronutrients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
710: Landschaftsgestaltung, Raumplanung