Nodule detection in chest radiographs with unsupervised pre-trained detection transformers
IEEE 20th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2023)
Contribution to Conference
The detection of pulmonary nodules in chest x-rays is important for early observation and monitoring of lung cancer which is a major reason for death worldwide. However, detecting nodules from x-rays is challenging as nodules are easily overseen by radiologists. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) show promising results in supporting the clinical practice by automatic lung nodule detection and localization. Recently, attention-based Vision Transformers have been successfully applied in computer vision tasks. For object detection, end-to-end solutions have been proposed that reduce the amount of encoded prior knowledge and manual postprocessing. This is desirable particularly for medical applications where data domains often vary.In this work, we evaluate the application of Detection Transformers for nodule detection in chest x-rays and compare them against four CNN-based baseline object detection algorithms. To overcome the data inefficiency of Vision Transformers, we investigate the use of self-supervision from large-scale data sources. Our results demonstrate the high performance of transformer-based object detectors, by consistently outperforming CNN-based baselines on the Node21 data set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that self-supervision improves the detection performance without the costly requirement of collecting annotated data.
610: Medicine, Health