Seismic site response of layered saturated sand: comparison of finite element simulations with centrifuge test results
A numerical model based on the finite element framework was developed to predict the seismic response of saturated sand under free-field conditions. The finite element framework used a non-linear coupled hypoplastic model based on the u-p formulation to simulate the behaviour of the saturated sand. The u-p coupled constitutive model was implemented as a user-defined routine in commercial ABAQUS explicit 6.14. Results of centrifuge experiments simulating seismic site response of a layered saturated sand system were used to validate the numerical results. The centrifuge test consisted of a three-layered saturated sand system subjected to one-dimensional seismic shaking at the base. The test set-up was equipped with accelerometers, pore pressure transducers, and LVDTs at various levels. Most of the constitutive models used to date for predicting the seismic response of saturated sands have underestimated volumetric strains even after choosing material parameters subjected to rigorous calibration measures. The hypoplastic model with intergranular strains calibrated against monotonic triaxial test results was able to effectively capture the volumetric strains, reasons for which are discussed in this paper. The comparison of the numerical results to centrifuge test data illustrates the capabilities of the developed u-p hypoplastic formulation to perform pore fluid analysis of saturated sand in ABAQUS explicit, which inherently lacks this feature.
More Funding Information
Author 1 was funded by German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Research Grants—Doctoral Programmes in Germany (57214224).