An Advanced Prediction Model for Underwater Noise Emissions of Ships
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between design and operational ship parameters with respect to radiated underwater noise and to develop a semiempirical noise prediction model that includes the dominant noise contributors present on merchant vessels. The model is based on Dietrich Wittekind’s prediction model and on underwater noise measurements with related Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Additionally, the noise contribution of a two-stroke engine is investigated using structure-borne noise measurements and Finite Element Methods (FEM). The updated model can be used to assess the expected underwater noise emissions induced by ship traffic in a specific sea area based on AIS data and as a basis to produce noise maps. In conclusion, the prediction model will work as a useful tool to help understanding the noise contributors, their sensitivity on ships speed, and their impact in a defined environment.