|Publisher DOI:||10.3390/membranes8020017||Title:||Comparison of NF-RO and RO-NF for the treatment of mature landfill leachates: a guide for landfill operators||Language:||English||Authors:||Ramaswami, Sreenivasan
|Keywords:||landfill leachate;monovalent ions;nanofiltration;organics;reverse osmosis||Issue Date:||21-Mar-2018||Publisher:||Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute||Source:||Membranes 8 (2): 17 (2018)||Journal or Series Name:||Membranes||Abstract (english):||Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable. This study investigated two schemes RO-NF and NF-RO (nanofiltration of raw leachate followed by reverse osmosis of NF permeate) to identify their merits/demerits. Experiments were conducted in bench scale using commercial membranes: DOW Filmtec NF270 and SW30HR. Filtration trials were performed at different pressures to compare the water and solute transports in the individual stages of the two schemes. Based on the water fluxes and compositions of retentates and permeates; osmotic pressures, energy demands, and other possible operational advantages were discussed. NF-RO offers some advantages and flexibility for leachate treatment besides being energy efficient compared to RO-NF, wherein osmotic pressure steadily increases during operation in turn increasing operation and maintenance costs.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/11420/1600||DOI:||10.15480/882.1597||ISSN:||2077-0375||Institute:||Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewässerschutz B-2||Type:||(wissenschaftlicher) Artikel||Project:||Open Access Publizieren 2018 - 2019 / TU Hamburg||License:||In Copyright|
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