Publisher DOI: 10.1007/s13399-016-0229-3
Title: Assessment of additives avoiding the release of problematic species into the gas phase during biomass combustion—development of a fast screening method based on TGA
Language: English
Authors: Höfer, Isabel 
Kaltschmitt, Martin 
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2019
Source: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 1 (9): 21-33 (2019-03-01)
Journal or Series Name: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 
Abstract (english): Particulate matter (PM) emissions formed during combustion of solid biofuels and released with the flue gas into the atmosphere are harmful to humans and the environment. A possibility to reduce such PM emissions is the addition of additives to the solid biofuels avoiding the formation of compounds released as particulate matter emissions. So far, different additives have been identified in the literature assessed by a broad variety of (expensive) chemical analysis techniques. Against this background, the overall objective of this paper is it to show that a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is sufficient to estimate the influence of a specific additive on the particulate matter emissions formed during combustion in the lab scale. This can be realised by comparing mixtures between additives and biomass blends with a TGA standard measurement procedure with a reference sample prepared from the respective biomass blend mixed with SiO 2 as an inert additive. To show the applicability of this approach, seven additives (kaolinite, Zn, CaHPO 4 , MgHPO 4 , CaO, MgCO 3 and MnCO 3 ) are tested with two different wood/straw blends. The results of the presented analytical method demonstrate that especially the additives kaolinite, Zn, CaHPO 4 and MnCO 3 have a low mass loss (< 10 wt.%) for wood/straw blends with an amount of straw of 10 and 20 wt.% and therefore reduced emission released into the gas phase compared to the reference sample with SiO 2 . Further analysis in the lab (IC, AAS and XRD) demonstrated that these additives lead to an enrichment of problematic species K, Na, PO 43− and SO 42− , typically found in PM emissions, in the coarse ashes and thus avoid the transfer of these substances into the gas phase. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11420/2255
ISSN: 2190-6815
Institute: Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft V-9 
Type: (wissenschaftlicher) Artikel
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