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Publisher DOI: 10.1107/S2052252518008369
Title: Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs
Language: English
Authors: Wiedorn, Max Oliver 
Awel, Salah 
Morgan, Andrew J. 
Ayyer, Kartik 
Gevorkov, Yaroslav 
Fleckenstein, Holger 
Roth, Nils 
Adriano, Luigi 
Bean, Richard 
Beyerlein, Kenneth R. 
Chen, Joe 
Coe, Jesse 
Cruz-Mazo, Francisco 
Ekeberg, Tomas 
Graceffa, Rita 
Heymann, Michael 
Horke, Daniel A. 
Knoška, Juraj 
Mariani, Valerio 
Nazari, Reza 
Oberthür, Dominik 
Samanta, Amit K. 
Sierra, Raymond G. 
Stan, Claudiu A. 
Yefanov, Oleksandr 
Rompotis, Dimitrios 
Correa, Jonathan 
Erk, Benjamin 
Treusch, Rolf 
Schulz, Joachim 
Hogue, Brenda G. 
Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M. 
Fromme, Petra 
Küpper, Jochen 
Rode, Andrei V. 
Bajt, Saša 
Kirian, Richard A. 
Chapman, Henry N. 
Keywords: FELs;X-ray FEL pulse trains;X-ray free-electron lasers;megahertz repetition rates
Issue Date: 27-Jul-2018
Source: IUCrJ Pt 5 (5): 574-584-584 (2018-09-01)
Journal or Series Name: IUCrJ 
Abstract (english): Liquid microjets are a common means of delivering protein crystals to the focus of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) for serial femtosecond crystallography measurements. The high X-ray intensity in the focus initiates an explosion of the microjet and sample. With the advent of X-ray FELs with megahertz rates, the typical velocities of these jets must be increased significantly in order to replenish the damaged material in time for the subsequent measurement with the next X-ray pulse. This work reports the results of a megahertz serial diffraction experiment at the FLASH FEL facility using 4.3 nm radiation. The operation of gas-dynamic nozzles that produce liquid microjets with velocities greater than 80 m s-1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, this article provides optical images of X-ray-induced explosions together with Bragg diffraction from protein microcrystals exposed to trains of X-ray pulses repeating at rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The results indicate the feasibility for megahertz serial crystallography measurements with hard X-rays and give guidance for the design of such experiments.
DOI: 10.15480/882.2221
ISSN: 2052-2525
Institute: Bildverarbeitungssysteme E-2 
Type: (wissenschaftlicher) Artikel
License: CC BY 2.0 (Attribution) CC BY 2.0 (Attribution)
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