High-rate nitrification of saline wastewaters using fixed-bed reactors
Fixed-bed reactor (FBR) is a promising technology for realising robust high-rate nitrification. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of salinity on these systems. In this research work, the effect of gradual stepwise increase in chloride concentration (NaCl content) on the performance of high-rate nitrifying FBRs was studied at loading rates of about 1 kg NH4+-N∙m-3∙d-1 at 25 °C. Two lab-scale FBRs having stable biofilms (adapted to 4 g Cl−/L) grown on commercial media – plastic carrier fed with nanofiltration (NF) permeate of a landfill leachate concentrate, and clay beads fed with synthetic saline wastewater, respectively – were operated using up-flow velocities (u) of about 12 and 8 m/h, respectively, for a period of about 100 days, wherein the chloride content of the feed water was increased from 4 to 16 g/L (electrical conductivity: 13–45 mS/cm). On an average, the FBR packed with plastic carriers (u ≈ 12 m/h) offered ammonia removal percentages greater than 97%, whereas the FBR filled with clay beads due to its low bed porosity (and therefore, u ≈ 8 m/h only) gave nitrification efficiencies of about 70% only. The organic compounds contained in the NF permeate were found to temporarily inhibit the nitrifiers (causing nitrite accumulation), whereas the ammonia removed in the clay beads-packed FBR was transformed almost entirely into nitrate. Increase in chloride content did not have any observable detrimental effect on the performance of the reactors.
000: Allgemeines, Wissenschaft