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Publisher DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29984-5
Title: Radar-based heart sound detection
Language: English
Authors: Will, Christoph 
Shi, Kilin 
Schellenberger, Sven 
Steigleder, Tobias 
Michler, Fabian 
Fuchs, Jonas 
Weigel, Robert 
Ostgathe, Christoph 
Kölpin, Alexander  
Issue Date: 26-Jul-2018
Publisher: Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature
Source: Scientific Reports 1 (8): 11551 (2018-12-01)
Journal or Series Name: Scientific reports 
Abstract (english): This paper introduces heart sound detection by radar systems, which enables touch-free and continuous monitoring of heart sounds. The proposed measurement principle entails two enhancements in modern vital sign monitoring. First, common touch-based auscultation with a phonocardiograph can be simplified by using biomedical radar systems. Second, detecting heart sounds offers a further feasibility in radar-based heartbeat monitoring. To analyse the performance of the proposed measurement principle, 9930 seconds of eleven persons-under-tests’ vital signs were acquired and stored in a database using multiple, synchronised sensors: a continuous wave radar system, a phonocardiograph (PCG), an electrocardiograph (ECG), and a temperature-based respiration sensor. A hidden semi-Markov model is utilised to detect the heart sounds in the phonocardiograph and radar data and additionally, an advanced template matching (ATM) algorithm is used for state-of-the-art radar-based heartbeat detection. The feasibility of the proposed measurement principle is shown by a morphology analysis between the data acquired by radar and PCG for the dominant heart sounds S1 and S2: The correlation is 82.97 ± 11.15% for 5274 used occurrences of S1 and 80.72 ± 12.16% for 5277 used occurrences of S2. The performance of the proposed detection method is evaluated by comparing the F-scores for radar and PCG-based heart sound detection with ECG as reference: Achieving an F1 value of 92.22 ± 2.07%, the radar system approximates the score of 94.15 ± 1.61% for the PCG. The accuracy regarding the detection timing of heartbeat occurrences is analysed by means of the root-mean-square error: In comparison to the ATM algorithm (144.9 ms) and the PCG-based variant (59.4 ms), the proposed method has the lowest error value (44.2 ms). Based on these results, utilising the detected heart sounds considerably improves radar-based heartbeat monitoring, while the achieved performance is also competitive to phonocardiography.
DOI: 10.15480/882.2828
ISSN: 2045-2322
Type: (wissenschaftlicher) Artikel
Funded by: The research project GUARDIAN is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Berlin, Germany, project grant No. 16SV7694.
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