Open-loop control of underactuated mechanical systems using servo-constraints : analysis and some examples
Applications of differential-algebraic equations : examples and benchmarks / Stephen Campbell, Achim Ilchmann, Volker Mehrmann, Timo Reis (editors). - Cham : Springer, 2019. - Seite 81-122
A classical trajectory tracking control approach combines feedforward control with a feedback loop. Since both parts can be designed independently, this is called a two degree of freedom control structure. Feedforward control is ideally an inverse model of the system. In case of underactuated mechanical systems the inverse model often cannot be derived analytically, or the derivation cannot follow a systematic approach. Then, the numerical approach based on servo-constraints has shown to be effective. In this approach, the equations of motion are appended by algebraic equations constraining the output to follow a specified output trajectory, representing the servo-constraints. The arising differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) are solved for the desired open-loop control input. An additional feedback loop stabilizes the system around the specified trajectories. This contribution reviews the use of servo-constraints in mechanical open-loop control problems. Since the arising set of DAEs is usually of higher index, index reduction and analysis methods are reviewed for flat as well as non-flat systems. Some typical examples are given and numerical results are presented.