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Publisher DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-81101-1
Title: Contactless analysis of heart rate variability during cold pressor test using radar interferometry and bidirectional LSTM networks
Language: English
Authors: Shi, Kilin 
Steigleder, Tobias 
Schellenberger, Sven  
Michler, Fabian 
Malessa, Anke 
Lurz, Fabian 
Rohleder, Nicolas 
Ostgathe, Christoph 
Weigel, Robert 
Kölpin, Alexander  
Issue Date: 4-Feb-2021
Publisher: Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature
Source: Scientific Reports 1 (11): 3025 (2021-12-01)
Journal: Scientific reports 
Abstract (english): 
Contactless measurement of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects changes of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides crucial information on the health status of a person, would provide great benefits for both patients and doctors during prevention and aftercare. However, gold standard devices to record the HRV, such as the electrocardiograph, have the common disadvantage that they need permanent skin contact with the patient. Being connected to a monitoring device by cable reduces the mobility, comfort, and compliance by patients. Here, we present a contactless approach using a 24 GHz Six-Port-based radar system and an LSTM network for radar heart sound segmentation. The best scores are obtained using a two-layer bidirectional LSTM architecture. To verify the performance of the proposed system not only in a static measurement scenario but also during a dynamic change of HRV parameters, a stimulation of the ANS through a cold pressor test is integrated in the study design. A total of 638 minutes of data is gathered from 25 test subjects and is analysed extensively. High F-scores of over 95% are achieved for heartbeat detection. HRV indices such as HF norm are extracted with relative errors around 5%. Our proposed approach is capable to perform contactless and convenient HRV monitoring and is therefore suitable for long-term recordings in clinical environments and home-care scenarios.
DOI: 10.15480/882.3292
ISSN: 2045-2322
Institute: Hochfrequenztechnik E-3 
Document Type: Article
More Funding information: The research project GUARDIAN is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Berlin, Germany, project grant No. 16SV7694.
License: CC BY 4.0 (Attribution) CC BY 4.0 (Attribution)
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