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Publisher DOI: 10.3390/su13074080
Title: Free discharge of subsurface drainage effluent : an alternate design of the surface drain system in Pakistan
Language: English
Authors: Imran, Muhammad Ali 
Xu, Jinlan 
Sultan, Muhammad 
Shamshiri, Redmond R. 
Ahmed, Naveed 
Javed, Qaiser 
Asfahan, Hafiz Muhammad 
Latif, Yasir 
Usman, Muhammad  
Ahmad, Riaz 
Keywords: surface drain system; design; drainage effluent; Pakistan
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2021
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Source: Sustainability 13 (7): 4080 (2021-04-01)
Abstract (english): 
In Pakistan, many subsurface (SS) drainage projects were launched by the Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) to deal with twin problems (waterlogging and salinity). In some cases, sump pumps were installed for the disposal of SS effluent into surface drainage channels. Presently, sump pumps have become dysfunctional due to social and financial constraints. This study evaluates the alternate design of the Paharang drainage system that could permit the discharge of the SS drainage system in the response of gravity. The proposed design was completed after many successive trials in terms of lowering the bed level and decreasing the channel bed slope. Interconnected MS-Excel worksheets were developed to design the L-section and X-section. Design continuity of the drainage system was achieved by ensuring the bed and water levels of the receiving drain were lower than the outfalling drain. The drain cross-section was set within the present row with a few changes on the service roadside. The channel side slope was taken as 1:1.5 and the spoil bank inner and outer slopes were kept as 1:2 for the entire design. The earthwork was calculated in terms of excavation for lowering the bed level and increasing the drain section to place the excavated materials in a specific manner. The study showed that modification in the design of the Paharang drainage system is technically admissible and allows for the continuous discharge of SS drainage effluent from the area.
DOI: 10.15480/882.3428
ISSN: 2071-1050
Journal: Sustainability 
Other Identifiers: doi: 10.3390/su13074080
Institute: Wasserressourcen und Wasserversorgung B-11 
Document Type: Article
License: CC BY 4.0 (Attribution) CC BY 4.0 (Attribution)
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