Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.15480/882.3468
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/s21092959
Title: Automated non-contact respiratory rate monitoring of neonates based on synchronous evaluation of a 3D time-of-flight camera and a microwave interferometric radar sensor
Language: English
Authors: Gleichauf, Johanna 
Herrmann, Sven 
Hennemann, Lukas 
Krauss, Hannes 
Nitschke, Janina 
Renner, Philipp 
Niebler, Christine 
Kölpin, Alexander  
Keywords: non-contact monitoring;neonates;synchronous evaluation;respiratory rate
Issue Date: 23-Apr-2021
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Source: Sensors 21 (9): 2959 (2021)
Journal or Series Name: Sensors 
Abstract (english): 
This paper introduces an automatic non-contact monitoring method based on the synchronous evaluation of a 3D time-of-flight (ToF) camera and a microwave interferometric radar sensor for measuring the respiratory rate of neonates. The current monitoring on the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) has several issues which can cause pressure marks, skin irritations and eczema. To minimize these risks, a non-contact system made up of a 3D time-of-flight camera and a microwave interferometric radar sensor is presented. The 3D time-of-flight camera delivers 3D point clouds which can be used to calculate the change in distance of the moving chest and from it the respiratory rate. The disadvantage of the ToF camera is that the heartbeat cannot be determined. The microwave interferometric radar sensor determines the change in displacement caused by the respiration and is even capable of measuring the small superimposed movements due to the heartbeat. The radar sensor is very sensitive towards movement artifacts due to, e.g., the baby moving its arms. To allow a robust vital parameter detection the data of both sensors was evaluated synchronously. In this publication, we focus on the first step: determining the respiratory rate. After all processing steps, the respiratory rate determined by the radar sensor was compared to the value received from the 3D time-of-flight camera. The method was validated against our gold standard: a self-developed neonatal simulation system which can simulate different breathing patterns. In this paper, we show that we are the first to determine the respiratory rate by evaluating the data of an interferometric microwave radar sensor and a ToF camera synchronously. Our system delivers very precise breaths per minute (BPM) values within the norm range of 20–60 BPM with a maximum difference of 3 BPM (for the ToF camera itself at 30 BPM in "normal" mode). Especially in lower respiratory rate regions, i.e., 5 and 10 BPM, the synchronous evaluation is required to compensate the drawbacks of the ToF camera. In the norm range, the ToF camera performs slightly better than the radar sensor.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11420/9369
DOI: 10.15480/882.3468
ISSN: 1424-8220
Other Identifiers: doi: 10.3390/s21092959
Institute: Hochfrequenztechnik E-3 
Document Type: Article
Funded by: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung 
More Funding information: This research was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany (funding reference: 13FH546IX6).
License: CC BY 4.0 (Attribution) CC BY 4.0 (Attribution)
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