A Review of Land-Based Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Micro and Macro-Catchments
In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, water is the limiting factor for food production; especially in areas where rain-fed agriculture dominates. Rainwater harvesting systems have the potential to provide a sustainable source of water, while helping to achieve food security and combat soil erosion and flood hazards, simultaneously, if designed correctly. Therefore, land-based rainwater harvesting systems are able to increase crop yields significantly. A variety of techniques for micro and macro-catchment rainwater harvesting schemes are reviewed, with emphasis on design factors which will ensure a functional system. However, in spite of the potential to increase agricultural productivity with the help of micro and macro-catchment rainwater harvesting, and thus food availability, the implementation of these techniques is not as widely distributed amongst farmers as it could be.